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Project in Rwanda

Rwanda Enhancement for Enabling Policy Support to the Dairy Sector

Timeframe: October 2019 - June 2021

Funding: USAID

Principal investigator (PI) and lead institution

  • Ronald M. Gordon, Courtesy Professor, Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida 

Co-PI and collaborator institutions

  • Arie H. Havelaar, Professor, Emerging Pathogens Institute, Department of Animal Sciences/IFAS,University of Florida
  • Jean Paul Hategekimana, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture Animal Sciences & Veterinary Medicine, University of Rwanda 


Research Brief. Gordon, R., VanSickle, J.J., and Havelaar, A.H. 2023. Perspectives on Policy Support to the Rwanda Dairy Sector. Gainesville, FL, USA: Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Livestock Systems. 

Sapp, A.C., Amaya, M.P., Havelaar, A.H., and Nane, G.F. 2022. Attribution of country level foodborne disease to food group and food types in three African countries: Conclusions from a structured expert judgment study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 16(9): e0010663.

Sapp, A.C., Nane, G.F., Amaya, M.P., Niyonzima, E., Hategekimana, J.P., VanSickle, J.J., Gordon, R.M. and Havelaar, A.H. 2023. Estimates of disease burden caused by foodborne pathogens in contaminated dairy products in Rwanda. BMC Public Health 23, 657.

Project Plan

This project intends to analyze and develop policy options to enhance milk and milk products in Rwanda. Observation in the country indicates that there is a growing demand for processed milk products.

One major concern is the consumption of unprocessed milk. Risk analyses related to unprocessed milk will seek to understand levels of contamination by several known pathogens. Secondly, an analysis will examine the milk value chain across the entire marketing chain, including farmers, transporters, milk collection centers, and milk processing establishments.  


International and national experts will be assembled and surveyed in a structured manner, using Cooke’s Classical Model. This model provides quantitative information from expert scoring. Qualitative data will be gathered through structured questionnaires with various actors in the marketing chain. Four students from the University of Rwanda will serve as enumerators.

More Information

 October 2020 research update GORDON VGM (Virtual General Meeting)

Related Projects

This research project builds upon three projects focused on the increased production of milk in the country. These projects are:

  1. Enhancing the Quality and Consumption of Milk for Improved Income and Nutrition in Rwanda
  2. Milk Production Practices, Udder Health and their Impact On Milk Quality, Safety and Processability in Rwanda
  3. Challenges of Implementing Modern Milk Quality Standards in Developing Countries: Case of Rwanda

Together, these projects represent an in-depth investigation of the practices and policies affecting the dairy sector in Rwanda.



Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Livestock Systems is part of Feed the Future

This work was funded in whole or part by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Bureau for Resilience, Environment and Food Security under Agreement # AID-OAA-L-15-00003 as part of Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Livestock Systems. Additional funding was received from Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation OPP#060115.  Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed here are those of the authors alone.